<![CDATA[blog.antlerstopeaks.com - Home]]>Mon, 26 Feb 2018 07:53:29 -0800Weebly<![CDATA[PA Elk Photography: Part 2]]>Tue, 04 Oct 2016 11:34:52 GMThttp://blog.antlerstopeaks.com/home/pa-elk-photography-part-2
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The cool fall mornings cause the fog to roll in over the hills. Getting up early is key to capturing the golden light of early morning.
This post is a continuation of my experience in Elk County PA this past September to see the elk rut. If you missed part one, be sure to check it out here. In the first part of this series I covered some aspects of planning the trip and the excitement of the first day at a location. This post will focus more on the trip itself as well as some things to keep in mind when you are somewhere doing a shoot. 

After an exhilarating first night on Winslow Hill and our first view of a 6x6 bull elk we retired to our hotel. I booked a hotel in nearby (relatively) St. Mary’s, which in hindsight was a little on the far side. It is always good to be as close to the action as possible, as the less traveling you have to do the more shooting you have time for. The hotel itself was nice and after a long day of travel and some excitement we quickly went to bed so we would be well rested for the next day. When going out for photography trips you tend to keep odd hours. From about an hour or two after sunrise until an hour or two before sunset the light is generally too harsh to get many outstanding pictures. From an hour before sunrise until an hour after sunrise/sunset is generally referred to as the golden time when the light is soft, warm, and pleasing to the eye. This is the time when most of the pictures I display are taken. Unfortunately for me (and my wife) this means getting up well before the sun comes up to get on location and in position early. This hold true almost universally no matter what you are taking pictures of. Wildlife in particular is significantly more active at dawn and dusk so being in position early is vital to getting the shot. 
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The view from the Winslow Hill viewing area
​Since we were staying about a half hour away this meant getting up before 5am to make sure we had time to scope out some good spots. Fortunately for us this turned out to be unnecessary since as we drove up we spotted a stopped car and another photographer snapping away. I quickly parked, grabbed my gear and went to see what the other photographer was seeing. It was still early so the sun was not awake yet but it was bright enough to see a massive 5x7 bull elk on a small hill grazing on some grass and bugling. We stayed there for about 20 minutes photographing him, but it was not the dream shot I was looking for and I was pretty sure we would see some more elk if we kept looking. 
Morning Call
​The risk of moving on paid off as we headed further up the road and spotted a group of cow elk in a distant field grazing on the wet morning grass. I set up on the hillside and snapped a few shots while waiting to see if the bull I heard bugling nearby would show himself. After a few more minutes the bull trotted out of the woods to corral his rather large harem. This bull was by far the largest we had seen yet and had a commanding presence. A smaller bull was on the outskirts of the field trying to get to the cows but the large bull kept them far away from the smaller challenger. This set up the stage for the picture below, with the elk keeping his harem in line. This shot was one of the top shots I had on my list of desired pictures to get during this trip and I was very happy with how it turned out. 
Watching Over
​The rest of the morning was quite exciting, with yet another bull coming in from the other side and feeding on a nearby tree by scraping his antlers on the tree to knock off fruit and leaves. We stayed with this bull for the rest of the morning and then headed back to the hotel for some more sleep and food. The early trip luck we were having ran out at this point. Friday night turned out to be pretty much a total bust with only seeing a few distant bulls on rather bland hills not doing much. We stopped by the visitor center which had a beautiful bronze elk statue, but was overrun with people coming in for the weekend. We tried the viewing sites but the elk were too distant to get any good shots. We did see a wagon with about a dozen people on it which was getting much closer to the elk than I thought possible and was quite intrigued. We inquired around and found out that about two dozen people a night can book a wagon ride which gets you up close and personal to the closed off areas that the elk roam. We tried to book for Saturday night but it was full and we were told our best bet was to get to the visitor center an hour before it opened to wait in line and try to book a spot for Sunday as reservations were only for a day in advance. 
Apple Treat
​Saturday morning was even worse than Friday night unfortunately. There were people everywhere who came up for the day. It was more like an amusement park than the wilderness that morning and the elk knew it too. They stayed far away from the loud crowds and no amount of hiking seemed to get us away from it. After a disappointing morning we were lucky enough to stumble upon a flock of turkeys that I spent a while photographing, and then we spent the rest of the morning/afternoon hiking around the area looking for good spots to come back to. That evening wasn’t much better. We ran into even more people than I thought was possible to fit into the area and only a few cow elk. This highlights one of the important parts of trip planning, which is you never know what is going to go wrong or if you will have bad luck so try and stay somewhere as long as you can. Professional photographers will often spend a month or more at a location trying to get the perfect shot. Sometimes even a month is not enough time. When you only have a weekend or a week it becomes even harder. Tourists who spend a single day at a location may get lucky once in a while, but you will rarely get the best shots after only a day. This trip we started strong and had a string of bad sessions in the middle. 
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​At this point we were pretty frustrated with all the people and the lack of elk, but there wasn’t much to do except keep trying. We scouted out a few spots during our hikes that were off the beaten track and had a lot of evidence of elk activity that we thought we’d try the next morning. Our adventures on Sunday I will leave for the next post in this series, and I will leave you here with a picture from Friday morning of a large bull elk with steamy breath in the cool morning. 
Morning Breath
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<![CDATA[Planning a Photography Trip, Pennsylvania Elk: Part 1]]>Tue, 27 Sep 2016 02:22:23 GMThttp://blog.antlerstopeaks.com/home/planning-a-photography-trip-pennsylvania-elk-part-1
A bull elk we encountered on our trip early one morning. 
Every year my wife and I try and do at least one trip dedicated to photography. These can be short weekend trips, backpacking treks, or week long vacations. This year we decided to focus on some wildlife photography and I’ve always wanted to see the elk rut. Once a year the elk go from subdued flighty and hard to find, to gathering in large numbers, aggressive and out and about. Typically when people think of elk they think of Yellowstone, Montana or the Rocky Mountains. This is where I started looking as well, but the timing and expense made it less than ideal. Enter the little known but growing PA elk herd.

Before colonization of the US by Europeans, the Eastern Elk ranged from New York to Georgia in large numbers. Referred to by the Native Americans as wapitis, or literally translated “white rumps”, these elk were ubiquitous to the woods of PA. However unregulated hunting, cutting of forests and the influx of settlers decimated the eastern elk until it was driven to extinction in 1877. In 1913 the PA game commission decided to reintroduce a different species of elk into PA by importing them from Yellowstone. With very little scientific research, and no real plan, the initial 50 elk did not exactly thrive. They imported more elk over the next few decades with varying success, but farmers illegally killing elk kept them from becoming successful. It wasn’t until the early 90’s that the herd began to thrive. The Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation donated a substantial amount of money to reclaim strip mined lands and help fence in private lands to prevent crop damage and illegal kills. With the herd growing the game commission was able to hold a lottery style hunt, raising substantial funds to further the elk conservation effort. Today the elk herd is spread out over 800 square miles and numbers over 1000 elk. Between the lottery for hunting licenses and tourism income the elk conservation effort is currently thriving and the elk can be found all over northern PA, particularly in Elk County. A much more detailed history can be found over at the PA State Website
The thriving PA elk herd is a site to behold. These majestic animals used to roam this area in large numbers, and thanks to conversation efforts they are starting to once again. 
After learning of this elk herd and how close by it was, the trip planning began in earnest. If there is one thing I have learned in my journey in photography it is that planning is key to getting the shots you want. Knowing when and where to be at what times ensures you the best opportunity to get the shot you want. You may get lucky once in a blue moon and stumble into the perfect photographic opportunity, but you will find much more success with foreknowledge of when and where you should be. I typically spend a minimum of 10 hours of research on a location for each day I plan on being there. This includes reading other blog posts on the area, determining what equipment I will need to take, knowing the best locations to be, and when to be there. It also includes knowing more subtle details like that current phase of the moon (for photographing the stars in the area or knowing when the animals will be more active at night), which side of a hill to be on for the correct positioning of the sun, and exactly what time the sun will rise/set over a given hill of a certain elevation. In the future I will do a much more detailed post on trip planning in general, but for now I will say that properly planning the trip ahead of time ensures I can get the best shots I can on a given trip.

No amount of planning can beat actually being there and getting to know the area intimately. Professional photographers sometimes spend up to a year at a location to get the shots you see in National Geographic and similar publications. Unfortunately I can rarely spend more than a week at a location and with so much to see only nearby locations can be visited multiple times. For this reason, planning is even more important to make the most of the time I do have in an area. 
Knowing where to be and at what time helps to ensure the best possible shot. The evening light is only ideal for about 30 minutes each night.
With the trip all planned out to hit in the middle of the fall rut, multiple hotspots and advice from other photographers given, and my equipment at the ready we embarked out to Benezette, PA where the Elk County Visitor Center and Winslow Hill viewing area are located. We arrived early evening Thursday night, hoping to beat the weekend day trip rush and get a lay of the land. We were getting there less than an hour before sunset so I didn’t have very high expectations on our elk viewing prospects for that night, but turns out we got there at just the right time. After scouting the Winslow Hill viewing area and joining the small group of people waiting to see elk we were pleasantly surprised to hear the bull elk bugling from nearly all directions. About 5 minutes after sunset a large bull elk emerged from the woods about 50 yards away from us. The light was too low at this point to get any portrait shots, but with the beautiful pink sky I switched to trying to position myself between the elk and the sky. With multiple hills and nearby cars and a few power lines this proved to be quite the task, but I was eventually rewarded with the shot below. 
Evening Silhouette
Sunset can be a rewarding time. This massive bull came out too late for any detailed shots, but the pink sky and the soft light made for a perfect backdrop in this silhouette. 
​The rest of this trip will be continued in part 2, stay tuned!
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<![CDATA[So, You Want to Buy a Camera?]]>Mon, 05 Sep 2016 16:43:23 GMThttp://blog.antlerstopeaks.com/home/so-you-want-to-buy-a-cameraA few of the most common things I hear when posting my pictures or talking about my photography is one of two things. The first is usually along the lines of, wow those pictures are great, you must have a really good camera. The fact is that I started taking pictures with a $60 point and shoot, and my current camera was a used 2 year old discount model that cost me <$300. This ties into the second question I get a lot, which is what camera should I buy if I want to get into photography? If you ask that question to 100 different people you will probably get told 100 different answers. The answer I think is the most useful in the end is to get the camera you will take pictures with. Sure you can get a $5000 camera that weights 12 lbs and is capable of taking any picture you could possibly imagine, but if you don’t know how to use it, if you are scared it will break and don’t take it, or if you think it is too heavy and leave it behind, then what good is it? Buy the camera you will actually use!

That’s great you say, but it doesn’t help me pick out which one I should get from the hundreds of options before me. In order to narrow down what camera you will use the most, and therefore which one you should actually buy, you should ask yourself a few basic questions first. What exactly do you plan one taking pictures of? Do you want something to take with you everywhere or for specific outings? Will you focus on photos or videos? Is this going to be a passing hobby you do once a month or something you want to get out and do every day? And of course the thing on peoples’ minds the most, what is your budget? In order to figure out what camera best suits your needs it is first best to understand what your options are and how they differ.

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DSLR Lightpath. Image Credit: Wikipedia
A camera system is made up of a few important parts. The camera itself is essentially a sensor, an auto-focus module, a viewfinder, and a shutter. These are the things you are paying for when you buy a camera and we will take a look at each one of these briefly, but much more in depth in later posts if you are interested. However when picking your camera I would say the camera itself is not the most important part. Yep you heard that right the most important part of buying a camera for photography is not the camera. The biggest difference between shooting pictures on your cell phone and shooting that award winning once in a lifetime shot is the glass you purchase. You can have the most expensive camera on the market, but if you put a terrible lens on it you will get an ok photo at best. The most important part of buying a camera is to see what lens system you are buying into. Thankfully with our modern consumer society and tough competition every major brand has a full lineup of capable lenses that can build a great system. Canon and Nikon have the most diverse and numerous lenses, with canon having just recently passed the 110 million lenses produced mark. However in recent years Sony and Olympus have really stepped up their game and started making better quality and a wider variety of lenses as well.

Additionally, with the modern capabilities of mass production even the basic kit lenses that come with introductory cameras are high quality and capable of producing excellent images, so don’t feel like you need to go out and buy a $1000 lens right off the bat. It will be more important to learn the basics of photography before investing significant money into a system. I mention all of this as it is something to keep in mind when deciding on a system. If you start buying a camera from Nikon and then buy a few lenses then decide to buy the newest Sony camera, well now all your lenses are useless with your new camera. This is one of the reasons you see such aggressive brand loyalty in photographers. They’ve sometimes spent $10,000+ on lenses for one brand and they will defend that investment with everything they’ve got since switching isn’t really a viable option at that point. If you run across what I call brand Nazi’s don’t pay them much mind, every camera system on the market is capable of producing award winning photographs, it is the person behind the camera that matters the most, not what brand you shoot with. 
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Canon currently offers the widest range of lenses for their system and also supports third party lenses such as Sigma or Tamron. Image Credit: Canon.com
Bridge Cameras:

Now that I’ve gotten that out of the way we will take a look at cameras themselves. Currently there are three categories of cameras that I would recommend for aspiring photographers. The first and most economic option are large sensor bridge cameras. These cameras, such as the Sony RX10 III offer larger sensors than point and shoot cameras, full manual control and a very large zoom range. These are great for people just starting out as they don’t require the purchase of any lenses; they are a highly capable sensor and are generally smaller than DSLR’s. The downside is that the sensor is smaller than that of a DSLR and thus the image quality is slightly lower and the lens is not interchangeable so it cannot be upgraded or swapped out for more specific purposes. If you are looking for a good all around travel camera without having to invest heavily into lenses then I would look no further.

Mirrorless Cameras:

The second category is mirrorless cameras. These are the modern version of DSLR’s, sporting the same sensor size as a DSLR, but forgoing the mirror/prism used for a viewfinder in favor of an electronic viewfinder that uses the sensor. The advantage of mirrorless cameras is that they are smaller and lighter than your standard DSLR, and can focus more accurately since they focus directly on the sensor instead of a separate auto focus module. Additionally since there is no mirror/prism to get in the way the lenses can sit closer to the sensor itself cutting down on the size of the lenses needed to produce the same field of view. This further cuts down on the size of your system by having a smaller camera as well as smaller lenses. These cameras will be larger than bridge cameras in general but give you full control over what lenses you buy and use. The downside of mirror less camera systems is that they use an electronic viewfinder which reads directly from the sensor. This means that instead of viewing the scene directly you are viewing it as the camera sees it on a small display inside the viewfinder. Modern technology has advanced these screens to be very similar to what we see in real life, but for fast moving scenes or scenes with a large range of light they are still lagging behind. The autofocus system of focusing directly on the camera is also much slower than having a dedicated autofocus module, though technology is slowly closing that gap. Additionally they drain the battery since they have to actively light the viewfinder instead of passively collecting light. However these concerns are minor for the size and weight savings you can achieve. It should be noted that only Sony, Panasonic, Olympus, and Fuji have really invested heavily into these systems with the Sony A7 series, the Olympus micro 4/3’s, the Panasonic Lumix series, and the Fuji X series. Nikon and Canon have promised to develop this technology further but currently they are focused on their lenses and DSLR systems.

DSLR Cameras:

The final and most traditional choice is a Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera. When you think of a “professional” camera this is probably the camera you picture. These cameras have a mirror or prism in front of the sensor to direct light partially to your viewfinder and partially to your autofocus module. You see directly through the viewfinder what you are capturing and the dedicated autofocus module provides fast and accurate lens focusing. When you go to take a picture the mirror/prism flips up out of the way and the light goes directly to the sensor, exposing your picture. Like mirrorless cameras these systems have large sensors of two variants, either APS-C or Full Frame. We won’t go over the details of those for now, but for a starter camera you will want to get an APS-C sensor which is what all introductory models are. Since you have a dedicated AF module and view the scene directly with available light the camera only uses power to focus the lens and take the picture. This means you generally get very long battery life as compared to other systems. It is not uncommon to get 1000+ pictures out of one charge. Since these are the most popular and well established systems they are also the cheapest to get in introductory models. If you buy the previous year’s model it is not uncommon to be able to get the camera with two lenses for under $600. 
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Armed with only my $60 point and shoot camera in 2009 I set out to start learning photography. You can do a lot with just a little camera. Yosemite, CA.
So which of these systems should you buy? Well if you are just getting into photography and not sure it is something you will do regularly, or if you just want a good all around camera without too much fuss then go for the bridge cameras. They are capable, reliable and easy to use. If you know you like photography and want to get into it more regularly or take your current skills to the next level then go for either a mirrorless or DSLR. DSLR’s are more well established and better for people with larger hands, while mirrorless are good for people who want a more discrete system or something more compact for on the go.

 As for specific models I will recommend a few that I know are reliable from each category as well as a link (click on camera name) to a review. In the DSLR category I will recommend two starter cameras, one from Nikon and one from Canon. From Nikon the D7100 is probably the best introductory camera on the market. It offers impressive specs and performance and a reasonable price. If you are looking for something cheaper, the previous model, the D7000 is also a good option.  On the canon side of things their T lineup is also great. I personally shoot with a T3i, but the latest model is the T6s which offers some much more impressive specs. Again if you are looking for a cheaper option look for deals on older models such as the T5i.

On the mirror less side there are a number of options, a few of which are the Fuji X-T10 , the Olympus E-M10 II, the Sony A6300, or the Panasonic GX80. All of these are capable with minor differences, and you really can’t go wrong with any of them for a starter camera.

Finally we get to the bridge cameras, which are almost too numerous to count. I have not personally shot with any of these, so I will not give you my uninformed review. I will instead direct you over to tech radar that reviewed many of these cameras and picked out their top 10 for 2016 here: http://www.techradar.com/us/news/photography-video-capture/cameras/best-bridge-camera-1259503

Well that concludes this rather long post. I hope you are one step closer to picking out the camera of your dreams and going out to take pictures. Just remember, pick the camera you will take with you!
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<![CDATA[Photography Basics: Holy Trinity of Camera Settings]]>Tue, 23 Aug 2016 16:23:11 GMThttp://blog.antlerstopeaks.com/home/photography-basics-holy-trinity-of-camera-settings
Fire and Water

Niagara falls at sunrise. Choosing the correct shutter speed and aperture allowed me to show motion in the water and have the whole image in focus at once.


Introduction

Before going into long discussions of the physics of photography or describing the technical aspects of some of my best pictures or telling you how to get the best picture possible it is important to understand the basics of photography. 95% of people taking pictures do so with their camera on auto mode, letting the camera decide what kind of picture to take. If you are just trying to get snapshots of memories then this works rather well. The camera has a very intelligent system for picking settings and will get you a decent picture 90% of the time. However the best you will most likely do is snapshots, whether you have a cell phone camera or $10,000 in equipment the result will be the same. In order to understand how to take your pictures from good to great to amazing first we need to get that camera off of auto mode and learn what all those buttons and dials actually do!

The Holy Camera Trinity

Taking a picture comes down to three important aspects in a technical sense. Those three parameters are shutter speed, ISO, and aperture. We will take each of these separately first and then talk about how they interact with each other to give you a final picture. This technical aspect of photography is often overlooked when you have a good eye and a highly trained artistic look on the world, but in order to take a picture from concept to reality you need to know how to master the technical as well as the artistic side of photography. 

Shutter Speed

This is the parameter people are most familiar with and also where we will start. The shutter speed is how long the camera sensor is exposed to the light. This can vary from 1/4000th of a second to up to hour long exposures. The faster the shutter the less light gets in and the more “frozen” the scene appears. For faster shutter speeds of about 1/100 s and faster you will essentially freeze the scene. This will vary depend on how fast the thing you are trying to photograph is moving. Generally we use fast shutters to stop the motion in a photograph and make everything appear sharp and in focus. If you want to convey a sense of motion in the picture you can use a slower shutter speed to give a motion blur effect. Longer exposures/shutter speeds are needed when there is not enough light or you want to convey motion in a slow moving object. Things like the Milky Way are very dim and require longer shutter speeds to capture. The picture below was taken in Arches National Park in Utah. 
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Milkyway rising over balanced rock. Camera settings used were: Shutter Speed 30s, Aperture f/2.8, ISO 6400. Long exposure times are needed to reveal the dim features of the milky way.
​This area is one of the darkest in the world, letting you see an unimaginable amount of stars. Since the sky and surrounding area is so dark a long shutter speed only collects the light of the stars, revealing them to the camera. A 30 second exposure allowed me to capture the stars but avoid any motion blur. Since the earth is rotating, motion blur is still a consideration when photographing the stars since the earth is moving relative to the stars. After about 30 seconds the stars would start to trail due to the earth’s rotation. If you want to try having semi-control over your camera's shutter speed try the T or Tv mode which allows you to set the shutter speed and let the camera adjust the other settings automatically for the correct exposure.

Aperture

The aperture setting provides two distinct yet equally important aspects to your photograph. The aperture itself is the opening at the back of your lens that lets the light into the camera itself. This opening can be opened or closed down to let in more or less light. Whenever you buy a camera lens it will come with an aperture rating. For instance most Kit lenses that come with the camera are labeled as 18-55 f/3.5-5.6. The second part after the f/ is where we will focus now. In order to understand aperture it is important to know what that f/ means. This designation is called the f-number of the lens. The f-number of a lens is determined by the focal length of a lens divided by the diameter of the aperture opening. For instance a 50 mm lens with a maximum aperture opening of 27.78 mm would be f/1.8. A 50 mm lens with an opening of 17.85 mm would be an f/2.8 lens. As you can see the smaller the f-number the BIGGER the opening, and therefore the MORE light the lens can collect. When buying lenses, the lens will be labeled with the biggest the aperture can go, not the smallest. All lenses can be “stopped down” where the size of the aperture is decreased for the picture. Generally any lens can go down to f/22 which indicates a very small opening for the light.

You may be wondering, why would you want to close the aperture to a smaller size? There are two reasons to do this. The first brings us back to shutter speed. Say we want a slow shutter speed to capture some motion blur on the thing we are photographing. If we keep the aperture the same but just change the shutter speed then a longer exposure means that more light goes to the camera and thus the picture is brighter. In order to keep the same brightness level for a longer exposure we must decrease the size of the aperture in order to let less light into the camera. The other reason relates to Depth of Field (DoF), which is the amount of the picture that is in focus. We will talk about the specifics and physics of depth of field in a later post, but for now we will keep is simple. The smaller the aperture opening the more of the picture will be in focus. If we are photographing a sweeping landscape where we want everything from the close blades of grass to the furthest reaching mountains to be in focus then we would want a small aperture such as f/11 or more to get everything into focus at once. ​
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A small aperture opening such as f/11 gives a deep DoF allowing the entire image to be in focus, from the flowers in the foreground to the mountains in the distance. This makes for a sharp and detailed landscape.
Instead if we want to have something really stand out in a picture and be separated from the background then we will want to use a really big aperture such as f/2.8 or wider. When you see “professional” pictures where the people really POP and the background is a smooth blur this is because the person taking the picture used a wide open aperture setting of f/2.8 or larger. Small compact cameras such as cell phone cameras have a very small lens which does not open very wide, meaning you cannot get the large aperture sizes of a DSLR. Aperture is a very powerful tool in creating the picture you want, and one you should experiment with extensively to understand how it works. Most cameras these days have a setting called Av or A which stands for Aperture Priority mode. If you learn to use one mode outside of auto this should be it. What this mode does is allows you to set the aperture to a size of your choosing and then the camera changes all the other settings to get you the correct exposure. This allows you to control the DoF of the image and take either stunning landscapes or professional looking portraits. This is the setting I personally use for probably 60-70% of my pictures as it provides powerful control while still letting the camera do most of the thinking.
Just remember a BIG number is a SMALL opening and a SMALL number is a BIG opening!
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An aperture setting of f/2.8 lets in a lot of light and creates a shallow DoF. This allows separation between the subject and the background, making them pop out.
ISO

The final component of the trinity is the ISO. We can have a lot of technical discussions on ISO and someday I hope we will, but for today we will stick the just the necessary parts. The ISO is the gain the camera uses to amplify the signal. Generally the base ISO is 100 where very little gain is used. As the ISO is increased the signal is amplified more and more. This is good for low light situations where you need a fast shutter speed but don’t have a lot of light to work with. Once you open up the aperture as wide as it can go, and if you want to, say, photograph a person in a dimly lit room you need a shutter speed fast enough to freeze their expression. However if the room is too dark you may be looking at shutter speeds of up to 1 second, which is much too long to both hold your hands steady as well as for the person to not move. The only option left at this point is to increase the ISO. At higher ISO you need less light for the same exposure meaning you can reach more reasonable shutter speeds, however at the trade off of more noise in your image. You are not only amplifying the light entering the camera but also the noise from various sources. This noise is what gives pictures a grainy look where the details are washed out and there are splotches of color throughout the image. In general the larger the camera sensor the better it handles noise since you are collecting more light overall and can therefore amplify it better. This is why trying to take a picture in a dimly lit bar with a cell phone usually doesn’t work very well, while a person with a DSLR might be able to get the picture with ease. In most situations I leave my ISO setting on automatic and let the camera determine what ISO I need for the shot. We will look at the interplay of these settings next.
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Looking at the background you can see the grainy appearance of the picture. This shot was taken at ISO 3200 which was too high for my camera, washing out the details and giving a noisy picture. However the only way to get this picture was to increase the ISO since my aperture was fully open and I couldn't shoot at a slower shutter speed. It is better to have a slightly grainy picture then no picture at all!
Bringing the Trinity Together

Now that we’ve done a basic overview of these three important settings it is helpful to know how they interact. For this we will introduce stops of light. Each “stop” indicates a doubling or halving of the amount of light recorded by the camera. The goal of the cameras metering system is to have a well balanced where things aren’t too dark or too light. The easiest of these to understand is the shutter speed. Halving the shutter speed (say 1/100s to 1/200s or 10s to 5s) halves the amount of light and thus is a 1 stop decrease in the amount of light. This would make the picture 1 stop darker and thus underexposed. Doubling the shutter speed (2s to 4s) doubles the amount of light and thus increases the exposure by 1 stop, or makes it 1 stop overexposed. In order to compensate for this change and to make the picture the correct exposure you or the camera can change either the aperture or the ISO to compensate. ISO works in a similar way; where doubling or halving the ISO changes the stops by 1. Typical ISO values are 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400, and 12800 and correspond to one stop changes. Finally you can open or close the aperture more to change the stops of light. Since these are circles but are measured using diameters the aperture changes are a little more complicated. We will start with a fully open aperture of the biggest size commonly available of f/1.4. From there full stop changes are f/1.4, f/2.0, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22.
We can use this information to find “equivalent” settings where we get the same exposure but vastly different pictures. Let’s start with a picture where the cameras metering system tells us that f/1.4 aperture, shutter speed of 1/250 and an ISO of 100 gives us the correct exposure. This will give a very shallow DoF, with no noise and very frozen scene. We can get the same exposure by using f/11 (+6 stops), shutter speed of 1/4s and ISO 100. Now we have the same exposure but with a lot of DoF and a very slow shutter speed. At this speed we would need a tripod as you cannot hold a camera steady at 1/4s without having a blurry picture. You can do a whole lot of in between settings that aren’t as extreme such as f/5.6, 1/60 and ISO 400 which is an average mix of DOF, shutter speed and ISO (these are probably the settings your camera would choose on Auto). This is where the beauty of A or Av mode comes in. You can set your aperture as you please then the camera will adjust the shutter speed and ISO automatically to keep the right exposure. In general the camera will slow down the shutter speed until it reaches ~1/focal length and then increase the ISO. The reason for this is that most people can hand hold the camera down to 1/focal length without causing blurry pictures. For instance a 100 mm lens can be hand held down to 1/100s but will need a tripod for slower shutter speeds. This is just a rough rule and your mileage will vary but it generally hold true.

Conclusion

Hopefully this gave you a pretty good idea of how your camera settings work together and how to start thinking about them when taking pictures. I encourage you to get your camera off of auto mode and experiment with the other modes to give you control over the settings. You will find that it may be hard to keep track of your settings at first, but as you experiment and get used to it you will quickly see an improvement in your pictures and getting the look you want. 
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<![CDATA[From Antlers to Peaks Welcome Post!]]>Sun, 07 Aug 2016 19:07:35 GMThttp://blog.antlerstopeaks.com/home/from-antlers-to-peaks-welcome-postPicture
Welcome to Antlers to Peaks photo blog. Here I will talk about a wide range of photography topics. Over the past 5 years I have been learning, testing and growing my technique and want to share that knowledge now with others who want to learn. My focus is on photographing the natural world around us and my blog here will focus on how to do that. I will start with some basics of photography and slowly advance from there.

​I encourage everyone to leave comments and feedback, and suggest topics you'd like to see covered. I will post twice a month and run series posts for certain topics. For starters here is a picture of a moose I took in Glacier National Park. All my photos have a story and I will hopefully get to tell some of those stories while posting here. 


The bull moose is one of the largest and most impressive animals in North America. Standing over 6 feet tall and weighing over a ton, an angry bull moose is more dangerous and causes more injuries to people than even the grizzly bear. My one goal in visiting Glacier was to see one of these impressive creatures, and after being there for nearly a week I thought my dream was going to stay just that. I had seen an impressive array of wildlife and even a cow moose as pictured above. While the cow moose was impressive it was no bull and my hunt continued. On the 5th day of our trip we stayed in a new location, Many Glacier Hotel. I knew this was our best chance at finding a bull moose as the low lying lakes make an ideal setting for feeding. A sunrise walk around Swiftcurrent lake was peaceful and offered beautiful views of the surrounding mountains, but no moose. As a last attempt to catch the morning feeding time we drove over to Fishercap Lake and hiked up the trail to the lake. When we rounded the bend to the lake we saw another photographer shooting towards the far end of the lake but didn't want to get our hopes up. When we finally got a full view of the lake there he was, a full grown bull moose, feeding on the side of the lake. I immediately set up equipment and waited for an ideal shot. The sun was already a little too high in the sky with no good cloud cover but this was my chance. All in all I took over 500 pictures of this moose. In every position, distance, pose, and orientation I could think of I photographed. 

In the end there were only a few shots that I was impressed with, and my favorite of the bunch is below. The shot I wanted, a bull moose feeding in a lake. Someday I hope to go back and find another bull moose and get that thrill of seeing the power and sheer bulk of such an impressive animal. Next time I hope to have a chance to photograph under better lighting conditions. Light is the key to photography and you will see it come up again and again in this blog, and will be the focus of many future posts. I hope you enjoyed this story and post and I look forward to continuing this journey in exploring photography with you.

Morning Swim
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